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International Trademark Registration in India

As businesses expand globally, the importance of protecting their brand identity becomes increasingly crucial. Trademark registration is a crucial step in safeguarding your intellectual property rights and protecting your business from unauthorized use or infringement. India, being a prominent international market, provides a vast and dynamic platform for businesses to thrive, making international trademark registration paramount. This blog post will delve into the nitty-gritty of international trademark registration in India and the benefits of having a registered trademark. So, whether you are an established global brand or a new business venturing into international waters, this blog post is a must-read.

I. Importance of Trademark Registration

1 Introduction to Trademark Registration in India

Trademark registration is a crucial step for establishing and protecting a brand’s identity in the competitive Indian market. As a form of intellectual property, a trademark distinguishes a product or service from those of others by providing important information about its quality. The Trademark Act of 1999 governs and regulates the trademark registration process in India, dividing it into 45 categories based on different products and services. The government of India oversees the registration process, maintaining a registry of all registered trademarks.

2. Benefits of Trademark Registration

Exclusive Rights: Trademark registration provides exclusive rights to use, sell, distribute, license or alter a product in any manner.

Brand Protection: A registered trademark helps protect the brand’s entity or name, adding value to its products and increasing brand awareness. It also prevents others from taking advantage of your name or brand.

Unique Identity: Trademark registration creates a unique identity for your brand, making it easily identifiable and distinguishable from those of your competitors. It also adds value to your brand.

Communication Tool: A registered trademark is an effective communication tool, providing unique and relevant information about a company’s products and services, which attracts more customers.

Legal Protection: Trademark registration gives the owner the right to initiate legal proceedings and demand monetary compensation in case of infringement of trademark rights.

3. Conclusion

In conclusion, trademark registration is an important step for businesses in India to establish their brand’s identity, protect it from infringement, and attract more customers. By registering a trademark, businesses can gain exclusive rights over their products, add value to their brand, and achieve an edge over their competitors. 

II. Limitations of National Trademark Registration

When it comes to trademark registration, there are limitations to the protection provided by national registration. Here are some key points to keep in mind:

1. Limited geographic coverage: National trademarks protect your brand only within the jurisdiction of the country where the registration has taken place. For businesses operating globally, this may not provide adequate protection.

2. Time-consuming process: National trademark registration involves filing applications with each individual country’s trademark office, which can be time-consuming and costly.

3. Inconsistent standards: Each country has its own requirements for registering a trademark and enforcing trademark rights, which can lead to inconsistency and confusion for businesses seeking protection.

4. Risk of infringement: Without international protection, a business’s trademark rights can be infringed upon by competitors in other countries, potentially causing reputational and financial harm.

To overcome these limitations, international trademark registration through the Madrid Protocol and Agreement offers a streamlined and cost-effective way to obtain protection in multiple countries. As noted by WIPO, the Madrid System provides “equal protection of one’s mark in many countries, with minimal formalities and lower costs than multiple national applications.” 

III. Introduction to the Madrid Protocol

1. What is the Madrid Protocol?

The Madrid Protocol is a treaty administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) that simplifies the process of filing international registrations of trademarks across multiple jurisdictions. It allows for the filing of a single international application to cover a wide range of countries, providing advantages in terms of both portfolio administration and cost savings.

2. How does the Madrid Protocol work in India?

India adopted the Madrid Protocol in 2013, in order to provide a system of trademark registration that is convenient for all. The protocol permits trademark registration in multiple jurisdictions that are part of Madrid Union’s member countries by filing a single application in the national or regional trademark office of the applicant. The introduction of the Madrid Protocol in India has simplified the procedure for applying for trademark registration and made it easier for subsequent management related to trademark registration.

3. What are the benefits of the Madrid Protocol?

The Madrid Protocol today is a vital factor for any successful branding policy and offers trademark owners early presence of brand at a global level. It helps speed up acquiring international reputation and generating goodwill of registered trademarks overseas. The Protocol also ensures legal protection of the brand of the registered owner against a large number of competitors in export markets. Other benefits include the increase of franchising opportunities for the owner opening of partnership possibilities and simplifies incorporation into global supply chains. In general, the Madrid Protocol provides the utmost effective support to the branding policies and business success to the owner of the trademark. 

IV. Procedure for International Trademark Registration

International registration allows businesses to secure trademark protection in multiple countries simultaneously. The procedure for international trademark registration in India can be done through the Madrid Protocol system. Under the Madrid Protocol, a mark can be registered in multiple countries by filing an application through the trademark office of the applicant, known as the office of origin. In case of Indian businesses, the Office of Registrar of Trademark India is the office of origin. After the trademark application is filed, the office of origin processes it and files it with the Intellectual Property Organization at Geneva. If the trademark application is found fit, the mark is then recorded in the International Register and published in the Gazette of International Marks. The International Bureau provides a certificate of international registration and notifies each of the countries contracting to the Madrid Protocol for which protection has been requested by the trademark applicant.

To obtain an international trademark registration in India, the applicant should be a national of India, domiciled in India, or have a real and effective business or commercial establishment in India. The applicant must also have a national trademark application or registration of a trademark with the Indian Trade Marks Registry and use it as a basis for the international application. The international application should have the same trademark as mentioned in the national trademark application or registration and has an identical list of goods and services. The applicant must also choose one or more other member countries of the Madrid Protocol where the applicant wants to protect their trademark.

Overall, international trademark registration can provide significant benefits for businesses seeking to protect their intellectual property globally.

V. Pre-requisites for Registering International Trademarks

Before applying for international trademark registration, there are certain pre-requisites that need to be met. These include:

1. The applicant must be a resident or Indian national or have a commercial establishment in India.

2. The applicant should have a trademark registered in India or should have filed an application for national trademark registration. The national trademark registration acts as the basis for the international application.

3. The applicant should file an international trademark application for the same trademark for which the national trademark registration is obtained or mentioned in the national trademark application.

4. The list of goods and services in the international trademark application should be the same as that of the national trademark registration or application.

5. The applicant needs to choose one or more Madrid Protocol member countries where they want protection in the international application.

It is important to conduct a trademark search before applying for international trademark registration to ensure that the trademark is not identical or similar to any existing trademark in the Madrid Protocol member countries. Once all pre-requisites are met, the applicant can file the international trademark registration application with the Office of the Registrar of Trademarks in India as it is the office of origin for Indian businesses. 

VI. A Case Study: Micromax’s Success with International Trademark

6. A Case Study: Micromax’s Success with International Trademark

Micromax, an Indian consumer electronics company, has emerged as a success story in international trademark registration through its strategic approach to the Madrid System. The company has been taking advantage of this international trademark system to support their commercial expansion in global markets.

The founders of Micromax note that their company’s name itself represents their vision to democratize technology in India. They aim to make connective devices like smartphones and tablets available at affordable prices for mass consumption. The micro in Micromax represents a microscopic understanding of the consumers’ needs. This microscopic understanding is evident in their innovations, like the marathon phone battery that lasts for a month on a single charge.

Micromax’s trademark registration under WIPO’s Madrid System has enabled them to register their trademarks abroad. They are now a trusted producer of consumer electronics that deliver market-relevant technologies consistently and connect with their customers.

The company’s Chief Marketing Officer Shubhajit Sen highlights that Micromax is “a company that lives by innovation.” They stay nimble in their approach and pick up insights from the market to cater to their consumers’ needs.

Overall, Micromax’s success with international trademark registration highlights the importance of a strategic approach to the Madrid System and a microscopic understanding of consumers’ needs. As Micromax CEO Vineet Taneja notes, “consumers buy our products because they trust the Micromax trademark.” 

VII. Trademark Search

When comes to registering a trademark, one of the essential steps is conducting a trademark search to ensure there are no similar or identical marks already registered. Here are some key facts to keep in mind about trademark searches:

1. The search must be conducted in the jurisdiction where the trademark will be registered. For international registration, this means searching in multiple countries.

2. It is crucial to search across all relevant trademark classes to ensure the mark is not already in use for similar goods or services.

3. A comprehensive search can be conducted online using databases such as WIPO’s Global Brand Database or national trademark databases.

4. While a do-it-yourself search can be useful, consulting a trademark attorney can provide more comprehensive and reliable results.

5. Conducting a proper trademark search is crucial to avoid infringing on existing trademark rights and to ensure a smooth registration process.

Remember, registering a trademark is a significant investment for your brand, and conducting a thorough trademark search is a vital step in protecting that investment. 

An Essential Step in the Registration Process

1. Registering your trademark internationally is crucial for expanding your business into global markets. It allows you to protect your brand’s credibility and build trust with customers worldwide.

2. One essential step in the international trademark registration process is applying to the appropriate national trademark office. This involves filing an application form and waiting for the office to examine and approve your application.

3. The next step is examination by the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO), which verifies that your application is error-free and forwards it to be approved and published in their International Trademark Gazette.

4. The final step is examination by the national trademark office of each requested country, where they will examine your application for any errors and publish it in their national gazette or bulletin for other trademark owners to express their concerns.

5. It’s important to note that the Madrid Protocol Agreement allows for multiple countries to be registered through a single application, providing significant benefits for portfolio management and cost savings.

6. To be eligible for international trademark registration, you need to fulfill certain requirements such as having a registered trademark in your home country or being a national, domicile or business in a contracting party included in the Madrid protocol.

7. To ensure a smooth and successful international trademark registration process, it’s recommended to consult an experienced trademark lawyer at every step.


“Registering a trademark will give you the exclusive right to use the trademark symbol in association with your products or services. It discourages potential infringers from illegally using your brand assets and gives you the right to sue the infringer.” 

VIII. Direct Application for International Trademark Registration

1 Direct Application for International Trademark Registration:
Direct application is a straightforward way for those who need international trademark registration in a specific country. In this process, an international application is submitted directly to the national office of the concerned country for trademark protection. It’s imperative to remember that the application must adhere to the legal requirements of the country where you want trademark protection.

2. Certification Requirements:
In India, to apply for international trademark registration, the applicant must have obtained a certificate of registration for Udyog Aadhar or a certificate of incorporation or partnership deed. These certifications are a must because they establish the legal identity of the applicant and prove the legitimacy of the trademark.

3. Step-by-Step Guide:
To apply for trademark registration, the first step is to fill out Form MM2 and MM-18E (in the US) for submission to the national office. The national office then examines the application for any errors and approves it if it’s error-free. The application then proceeds for examination by the WIPO, which verifies whether it adheres to global standards. Finally, the concerned national trademark authorities examine the application again to ensure it adheres to their country’s trademark laws.

4. Benefits of Direct Application:
The direct application process for international trademark registration is cost-effective and relatively faster than other methods such as the Madrid Protocol. Furthermore, direct application gives businesses the ability to gain quicker brand recognition in the country they want to serve and even before the worldwide recognition of the trademark.

5. Conclusion:
Every business that wants to expand globally needs to obtain trademark registration to ensure protection of their brand name. Direct application for international trademark registration in the concerned country’s national office is a simpler and cost-effective way to gain recognition and protect their brand. 

IX. Examination by the WIPO and National Trademark Offices

International trademark registration in India involves examination by both the WIPO and national trademark offices. The WIPO’s Madrid System is used for filing international trademark applications. The process involves five steps, including submitting the application to the office of origin, certification of the international application, and substantive examination by the designated member offices. The possible outcomes of the examination include a statement of grant of protection or a notification of provisional refusal.

According to the TRADEMARK MANUAL OF EXAMINING PROCEDURE (TMEP) by the USPTO, trademark examining attorneys and applicants can also benefit from guidelines and materials on trademark application prosecution in the USPTO. However, the guidelines in the Manual do not have the force and effect of law. They are developed as a matter of internal office management and are subject to change.

In the international trademark registration process, there are some common issues that applicants may face, such as insufficient contact details or the quality of images. If this happens, an irregularity notice will be sent for correction within a specific time limit. Additionally, each designated member office has a particular time limit of 12 or 18 months to grant or refuse protection. In responding to refusals issued by trademark offices, applicants may appeal against a provisional refusal at the domestic level or with a higher judicial or administrative body.

Overall, the examination by the WIPO and national trademark offices is an essential stage in the international trademark registration process, and it is crucial to comply with the rules and guidelines to avoid any complications in the application. 

X. Benefits of International Trademark Registration for Businesses

International registration is essential for businesses to expand and establish their brand value in the global market. Here are the top 10 benefits of International Trademark Registration for businesses:

1. Legal Protection: Registering your trademark internationally helps you protect your brand from any infringement of trademark laws.

2. Exclusive Rights: Once you have an international trademark registration, you have exclusive rights to your brand and can sue anyone who uses it without your permission.

3. Builds Reputation: A registered trademark establishes brand reputation, and customers associate product quality with the brand name.

4. Intangible Asset: International trademark registration creates an intangible asset to the business organization, and such IP can be sold, franchised, or commercially contracted to third parties in any manner for commercial gain.

5. Distinguishes Products: International trademark registration helps in distinguishing your products from that of your competitors and aids in building good market reputation.

6. Global Recognition: International trademarked acts as a dominating factor for the growth of e-commerce business and helps in establishing global recognition for your goods and services.

7. Licensing Agreements: Registered trademarks provide several options for the registered owner to create money and make his name and fame in the market through licensing agreements.

8. Low Cost: The cost of registering a trademark internationally is relatively less, and the registered trademark is valid for ten years, after which it can be renewed.

9. Expansion and development: A trademarked business attracts human resources and helps in the expansion and development of the company’s business in the market.

10. Attracts Investors: Having an international trademark registration can attract investors and help in the growth of your business.

In conclusion, international trademark registration is crucial for businesses to establish their brand value and protect their trademark from any infringement of trademark laws. It also creates an intangible asset that can be sold, franchised, or commercially contracted to third parties in any manner for commercial gain. 

XI. Frequently Asked Questions about International Trademark Registration in India

1. What is International Trademark Registration in India?

International Trademark Registration in India refers to protecting a trademark in various countries or jurisdictions through a centralized filing system under the Madrid Protocol. It is a cost-effective and convenient solution to register trademarks in multiple nations through a single form. The main aim is to make the brand safe and secured both nationally and internationally.

2. What are the benefits of trademark registration internationally?

Registering a trademark internationally offers several benefits such as:

– Stops the need to file various individual national applications

– Cost-effective as compared to traditional trademark registration methods across several countries

– Simplified maintenance and renewal of trademarks in various countries through the centralized system

3. What types of trademarks can be registered in India?

Various types of trademarks can be registered in India, including:

– Word trademarks

– Device trademarks

– Numerical trademarks

– Three-dimensional trademarks

– Sound trademarks

4. What are the functions of a trademark according to the standard of International Trademark?

The functions of a trademark include:

– Identification of origin of goods or services

– Advertisement for products or services

– Creating a public image for the goods or services

5. What is the Paris Convention?

The Paris Convention is an international treaty for the protection of intellectual property, including trademarks. It provides same benefits concerning Intellectual Property Protection and enforcement that the national law of any country of the Union grants its citizens, in any country of the Union.

6. What is Madrid Protocol?

Madrid Protocol is an international system for procuring trademark protection in various countries or regions using a single application. The system is regulated by two treaties, namely Madrid Protocol and Madrid Agreement, and the national of any signatory can protect the safety of their trademark in all other states that are parties to the agreement.